Department of Homeland Security. These railroad workers labored under dangerous conditions, often risking their lives. Homesteaders were required to stay on the land, build a home, and farm the land for five years. Most people in counties Northern states thought slavery was wrong. These extreme conditions caused mass immigration of Irish people to the United States.
More than 2, Germans arrived between and The men found jobs building railro, digging canals, and working in factories; they also became policemen and firemen. Cohan, words and music, A potato fungus, also called blight, ruined the potato crop for several years in a row.
Bythe population had grown to nearly 10 million people. Inseven out of 10 foreign-born people in the United States were Irish or German. The quality of life for ordinary people was improving. InPresident Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which declared that all the slaves in the rebelling Southern states were free. Louis, or to claim farmland.
Inthe Civil War began between the North and South. However, the U.
Call Edison The government offered to give acres of land—considered a good size for a single family to farm—in areas including Minnesota, Iowa, Kansas, and Nebraska. As slaves, they were not considered citizens.
Pershing, more than 2 million U. The workers of the Union Pacific Railroad, another company that built the railroad, were mostly Irish immigrants.
Many Americans were not in favor of the U. Since immigrants had settled mostly in the North, where factories provided jobs and small farms were available, hundreds of thousands of foreign-born men fought for the Union.
Most of the Irish were coming from poor circumstances. Some americaj motivated by the Homestead Act ofwhich offered free land from the government.
These brave settlers worked hard to start a new life on the frontier. People began moving away from the now crowded Eastern cities.
Potatoes were a central part of the Irish diet, so hundreds of thousands of people now didn't have enough to eat. It was difficult, backbreaking amrrican. InAfrican Americans ed almost 5 million and made up Between andmore than a million Irish are estimated to have arrived in America. InChinese immigrants made up about 80 percent of the workforce of the Central Pacific Railroad, one of the companies building the railway.
More than 8 million would come to the United States from to These people wanted to escape poverty and hardship in their home countries. They had enough money to journey to the Midwestern cities, such as Chicago, Cincinnati, and Whaat.
Chinese and Irish immigrants were vital to the project. The offer attracted migrants from inside the country—and waves of more immigrants from Europe. It would be an extremely bloody war; overpeople would die in jen fighting.
Slavery, however, was not abolished for nearly 60 more years. The Transcontinental Railroad was a radical improvement in travel in the United States; after its completion, the trip from East Coast to West Coast, which once took months, could be made in five days. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress.